Ross Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1993 — Article describes yeast beta glucan’s essential biologically active property is its ability to bind to the C3 Receptor site on immune cells that have a CR3 thereby initiating a broad immune response. This may include priming natural killer (NK) cells to attack cancer tumor cells that they may not otherwise target.
Clin. Invest. 1996 — Article describes how Beta 1, 3-D Glucans (a highly branched complex form) bind best to CR3 receptor sites, thus priming natural killer (NK) cells to attack cancer tumor cells that otherwise would not be attacked.
Yan J Immunol 1999 — Article shows that beta glucan enhances tumor targeting by immune cells when used with certain antibodies. Article also describes beta glucan’s role in opsonizing cancer tumor cells with an iC3b molecule causing immune cells to target those tumor cells which may otherwise not be attacked.
Xia JI 1999 — Article examines the similarities of human and mouse complement receptor 3 (CR3) and describes how beta glucan binds to the Lectin site of the CR3 thereby causing a broad immune response.
Ross Immunopharmacology 1999 — Article details beta glucans mode of action on the immune system. Article describes how CR3 binding by beta glucan begins a broad immune response especially to cancer tumor cells which the immune system might ordinarily only partially target.
Clin. Exp. Immunol. 1999 — Article demonstrates that beta glucan’s CR3 binding properties can be effective against cancer tumor cells that do not have CR3 receptor sites by potentiating natural killer (NK) cells to see the tumor cells as non-self.
JANA Spring 2002 — Article summarizes research showing beta glucans are effective against anthrax, cancer tumors and is beneficial in chemotherapy and radiation recovery.
ISJ Minireview 2004 — Article describes how glucans enhance the immune system of invertebrates (animals without a spine), thus proving that glucans have a basic function in the immune system of most biological species.
JANA 2005 — Article concludes mushroom derived glucans are an effective biologically active immune modulator.
JANA 2007 — Article ranks our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan the highest biologically active immune modulator of the seven products tested.
Biomed Pap Med 2007 — Article shows our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan is not only a highly effective broad response immune modulator but is also effective in lowering blood cholesterol and blood glucose levels.
Biomed Pap Med Fac 2007— Article highlights the benefits of combining glucans with resveratrol on the immune system.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2007— Article shows that Beta 1, 3 Glucans, in addition to enhancing the immune system, enhances the effects of chemo-therapy drugs and prevents or reverses their negative effects on the immune system. Also, article discusses the uptake of glucans in the gut.
Babicek Food Chem Toxicol 2007 — Article is a detailed toxicology study of beta glucan, a whole glucan particulate, (WGP) in low to high doses using lab rats. Article concludes there are NO adverse effects with beta glucan (WGP). Article also reviews other studies showing NO adverse effects of beta glucan.
JANA Vol. 11, No. 1, 2008 — Article shows our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan is the best absorbed and longest lasting of the other products tested.
Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 2008 — Article proposes that beta glucan’s broad immune response can be further enhanced with a sulfated form for clinical administration.
Med. Food 2008 — Article compares Yeast vs. Mushroom derived beta glucan’s effectiveness on the immune system. Article finds that yeast glucans have a broader immune response in lower doses than mushroom glucans.
Novak Journal Immunotoxicology 2008 — Article is an historical perspective of beta glucan’s evolution as an accepted biological response modifier. Article also describes the known Mode of Action of beta glucans.
Biomed Pap Med 2009 — Article concludes no adverse effects of combining our Beta 1, 3 -D Glucan and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Med. Foods 2009 — Article shows our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan most effective in preventing and reversing the toxic effects of both organic and inorganic forms mercury on the immune system of the four products tested.
Novak Drug Targets 2009 — Article is a comprehensive overview of various kinds of beta glucans. Article details beta glucan’s effectiveness as a broad response immune modifier and describes the known Mode of Action of beta glucans.
Open Glycoscience 2010 — Article ranks our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan the highest biologically active immune modulator with the broadest immune response of sixteen products tested.
Open Glycoscience 2010 (supplement) — Article states our Beta 1, 3-D Glucan is a superior product because of its purity.
Biomed Pap Med 2010 — Article ranks our highly purified Beta 1, 3-D Glucan more effective than the four other products tested in preventing and reversing the negative effects on the immune system caused by physical stress and cold stress.
Descroix Bioorg. And Chem. 2010 — Article details the effectiveness of brown seaweed derived beta glucan on the immune system. Article proposes that a synthesized form a beta glucan for clinical use could be made.
African Journal of Biochemistry Research 2010 — Article describes the benefits of combining Resveratrol with Beta Glucan on the immune system and mentions the benefits of Vitamin C in combination of Beta Glucan. The discussion section is a good overview of the immune system.
World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011 — Article highlights the benefits of Beta Glucan combined with Resveratrol in cancer therapy and chemotherapy/radiation recovery.
World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011 — Article focuses on the potentially significant role of Beta Glucan in medicine and it’s growing importance as a natural immunomodulator.
World Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011 — Article reviews glucan as an immunostimulant, a drug delivery vehicle and a synergistic combination. It supports the importance of glucan now that the best structure and activity level has been identified as in Glucan #300.
Oriental Pharm Exp Med- 30 July 2011 — Article supports that Glucan#300 is superior at supporting wound healing and lowering skin irritation and inflammation.
Anticancer Research 2012 — Article researches the combined effects of glucan, resveratrol and Vitamin C on breast and lung cancers. Results show that growth of both cancers was suppressed with the use of Glucan #300.
Toxins- 9 November 2012 — Article looks at the combined effects of glucan, resveratrol and Vitamin C at restoring the immunosuppression of toxins such as mercury or PFCs.
Biomed Pap Med 2012 — Article compares six commercially available glucan immunomodulators, and only RVB300 showed significant immune activity on six different immunological activities.
Oriental Pharm Exp Med 10 January 2013 — Article addresses the huge prevalence of PFCs in our environment and their immunotoxic effects and how this can be mitigated by RVB 300
Annals of Translation Medicine — 1 July 2013- Article looks at the effects of Glucan in children with chronic respiratory problems and its potential ability to stimulate mucosal immunity in C-reactive protein and lysozyme.
American Journal of Immunology — 5 July 2013- Article looks at effects of Glucan #300 and increased mucosal/salivary immunity in children with chronic respiratory problems.
American Journal of Immunology — 1 August 2013- Article looks at the effects of Glucan #300 on the physical endurance and energetic metabolism of children with chronic respiratory problems.
Pathology Discovery – 2014 – Volume 2/Article 8 — Article researches the effects of oral beta glucan on benign prostate hyperplasia. Initial findings show an improvement of NK cell numbers and positive effects on the PSA indices. Further support is provided by way of a case study report.
Annals of Translational Medicine Vol2, No2, 2014 — Article describes the extensive research that has been done on the effects of glucan on bone marrow, specifically the restoration of lymphopenia and neutropenia. The idea of glucan being as a radioprotectant from accidental irradiation or cancer treatments is also addressed.
Applied Scientific Reports 2014 — Article describes a new comparative study of 15 glucans and immune reactions. Glucan #300 was the most active sample. Immunological and biological effete of individual glucans were found to not be related to source and solubility.
Molecules 2014 — Article supports research that combination of resveratrol, B-glucan and Vitamin C was more effective on reducing stress-related symptoms, including corticosterone levels and IL-6 &12.
American Journal of Immunology 10(3) 2014 — Article examines the effects of Beta Glucan when used as an adjunctive therapy with chemotherapy, other cancer therapies and immunomodulators. It suggests that more studies of RVB 300 and Miaitake QOL are needed.
Biomed Pap Med 2014 — Article supports that Glucan#300 can be used as a support in reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins, including mercury thimerosal and depleted uranium.
Anticancer Research (34) 2014 — Article looks at the effects of 11 commonly used dietary supplements as immunomodulators. The only product with consistently high activity was glucan.
Journal of Nutrition Health 2014– Article looks at the effects of Glucan #300 on children with chronic respiratory infections. There was a marked improvement in overall health of these children as well as increased physical endurance and a reduction of clinical problems.
Annals of Translational Medicine 2015– Josef Richter, Vladimir Svozil, Vlastimil Král, Lucie Rajnohová Dobiášová, Vaclav Vetvicka – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared β-glucan and a placebo in children. β-glucan affects mucosal immunity in children with chronic respiratory problems under physical stress: clinical trials.
Journal of Tumor 2015– “Regulation of Hematopoiesis in Cancer Patients: Placebo-Driven, Double-Blind Clinical Trials of β-Glucan”- This article focuses on the effects of glucan supplementation on cancer patients in post-treatment periods to try to alleviate anemia. There was significant improvement in hemoglobin counts and erythrocytes.
This article explores the efficacy of beta glucan for improving the after-effects of cancer therapies. One major side effect of cancer and its treatments is anemia. “Hematopoiesis is the production of all types of blood cells including formation, development, and differentiation of blood cells. Prenatally, hematopoiesis occurs in the yolk sack, then in the liver, and lastly in the bone marrow. In the normal situation, hematopoiesis in adults occurs in the bone marrow and lymphatic tissues.” (Medicinenet.com) More than 50% of cancer patients end up with anemia. This impacts their immune systems, their quality of life and their survival rates. Anemia can make the cells in our bodies not get enough oxygen. Sometimes, a lack of oxygen may be severe enough to threaten people’s life. Anemia can also cause our hearts to work harder. Severe anemia can cause a delay in cancer treatments or make the treatment dose be reduced. It can also cause some treatments to not work as well as they should. Cancer can cause anemia in many different ways. Normally, the kidneys send hormones to the bone marrow signal for it to produce red blood cells. This process can be disrupted by cancer slowing the hormone production or by not allowing the body to use stored iron. Red blood cells also wear out faster than normal in cancer patients and may not be replaced as quickly as they are needed. Fewer red blood cells means there is less hemoglobin carrying oxygen throughout your body and hence, the immune system and everything else gets compromised. This study showed, ” The addition of glucan to the food during cancer increased chemotaxis and adhesion of neutrophils, affected the production of myeloid growth factors resulting in increase of hematopoiesis and influenced peripheral progenitors cells in the blood. In a model of irradiated mice, glucan caused regeneration of hematopoiesis and increased survival. In addition, some studies showed a direct increase in the destruction of tumor cells and higher tumoricidal activity by glucan treatment.” (Vetvicka 2015) The study also looked at anemia and chronic fatigue syndrome.
Journal of Nature and Science 2015– This article reports on a study conducted on mice that had artificially induced Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). The study concluded that Beta Glucan improved the conditions of CFS.
This article evaluates the use of yeast-derived Beta Glucan on mice, who have experimentally induced Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is often hard to diagnose, as fatigue is a factor in many infections and diseases. A standard means for diagnosis is that at least a 50% reduction in activity has been present for over 6 months. This has a huge impact on individual’s enjoyment and participation in their own lives. Treatments have been elusive. About 60% of patients with CFS also have immunological disturbances. Oxidative stress is being examined in the pathogenesis of this disease. In recent years, natural molecules have been examined for their effects on CFS. These include: dietary supplements, such as olive extract, Vitamin C and E and green tea extract; Curcumin; Ginseng and a Japanese herbal medicine with yeast extract. Due to some positive results from the herbal medicine (yeast-based), this study was generated to look into Beta Glucan’s effects. The study found that the NK cells in the spleen were increased; the production of important cytokines increased; there was a proliferation of lymphocytes; and the activities of 4 enzymes in the brain and blood were restored with the Beta Glucan. Conclusion: treatment with Beta Glucan may be an effective treatment for CFS.
Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences 2015– Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences-Vol.2, Issue 3- “Anti-Inflammatory Effects of β-Glucan in Cancer Related Fatigue”- This article reports on a study on fatigue in cancer patients and the effects of B-Glucan on the acute inflammatory responses.
This article examined fatigue and immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that are often associated with cancer treatments and stress. 100% of cancer patients report issues with fatigue and that fatigue continues in 50% of patients even a year after treatment. This study was a double blind trial with 58 patients with a control group and a group taking 200 mg of B-glucan- Glucan#300. The study measured concentrations of CRP, serum amyloid, orosomucoid and pre albumin, all indicators of inflammation. The results showed an overall improvement in the patients’ condition and a suppressed inflammatory manifestation.
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 35: 5287-5292 (2015) — “Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells” – This article looks at the positive effects of beta glucan on melanoma cancer through reduction of tumor weight and lung colonies and improvement of overall survival rate. There was also less damage to blood cells and a potentially increased efficacy of chemotherapy with glucan use. NK cell activity was also measured.
Int. Clin Pathol J 2015 — Our study demonstrated that orally supplemented glucan offers protection against experimentally induced NEC injury in a neonatal rat model. This effect is probably manifested via reduction of inflammatory response at the site of NEC injury.
Cancer Transl Med 2015 — Glucans and Cancer: Historical Perspective.
J Cell Sci Ther 2015 — β-Glucan – from Food Supplement to a Licensed Drug.
North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2016 — “Using two different murine models of cancer, we showed that the Se/glucan combination strongly suppressed the growth of cancer, mostly probably via stimulation of immunity. Conclusions: A combination of glucan with Se offers superior stimulation of immunity and inhibition of cancer growth. …data confirmed that Se supplementation used concomitantly with a high quality glucan can significantly improve its biological effects. Studies evaluating the exact biological mechanisms of action are currently in progress.” North American Journal of Medical Sciences, Feb 2016 Volume 8 Issue 2
Journal of Tumor 2016 — A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial compared β-glucan #300 and a placebo in people after complex surgical, radiation and/or chemotherapy treatment of cancer. Starting points of cancer disease are closely associated with obesity. The role of glucan in potentiation of immune system is well established, including effects on cancer development. In this study, we focused on effects of short term glucan supplementation in patients during complex cancer treatment. Our findings show the significant effects of glucan supplementation on induction of NK cell, suggesting that addition of glucan to the diet could be beneficial for prevention of cancer remission. The glucan-supplemented group exhibited some improvements in psychic conditions, nutritional state and overall feeling of well-being. Longer supplementation seems to be necessary.
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences 2016 — Our previous work was devoted to the possibility of positively influencing some immune mechanisms in patients suffering from cancer related fatigue. The relation between cancer and fatigue is well established as well as the positive effects of glucan treatment in both experimental and clinical models of cancer. The aims of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that glucan supplementation might influence the NK cells in patients with cancer-related fatique. This study clearly demonstrated the positive effects of short-term glucan supplementation on post-surgery and the rehabilitating phase of patients overcoming cancer disease.
Journal of Nutrition and Health Sciences 2016 — Curcumin is a turmeric-based compound with potential health benefits. In our study, we focused on the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin. We directly compared the biological effects of five different types of curcumin, showing that only some of them have significant biological activity. We can conclude that despite the fact that curcumin truly represents a biologically active natural molecule; its activity differs widely based on the type of sample. Clearly, not all curcumins available were created equal.
International Clinical Pathology Journal 2016 — “Comparison of Immunological Effects of Commercially Available β-Glucans: Part III “- International Clinical Pathology Journal- Volume 2 Issue 4 2016 –
This research study is the third examination of 15 Beta Glucan products from different sources- mushrooms, barley, yeast and oat, that are available to the general public. The researchers looked again at Phagocytosis, nitrite oxide formation, IL-2 and IFN-γ formation, and added a lung cancer model. No clear relevance between the source used for isolation and biological effects was found. As before, the 15 individual glucans differed in biological effects based on tested characteristics, but Glucan #300 again served as a benchmark in all the trials. So, highly purified and highly active glucans have strong and pleiotropic effects, but poorly defined glucans have only medium (if any) biological effects. Important for consumers and physicians to know!
International Clinical Pathology Journal 2016 — “Comparison of Immunological Properties of Various Bioactive Combinations: Part II “- International Clinical Pathology Journal- Volume 2 Issue 5 2016 –
Aim: More and more various mixtures of potentially bioactive molecules reach the market, however the serious testing is usually lacking.
Methods: In this study we directly compared the effects of eleven different combinations on the immune reactions.
Results: We evaluated phagocytic activity, IL-2 and superoxide anion formation, NK cell activity, antibody response and breast cancer inhibition. Our results demonstrated strong differences among individual combinations.
Conclusion: In most cases, these combinations have no effects at all. The only consistently active mixture was RVB 300
PLOS ONE November 9 2016 — “Effect of 1,3-1,6 β-Glucan on Natural and Experimental Deformed Wing Virus Infection in Newly Emerged Honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica)”, PLoS One (11), November 2016.
The loss of honeybee populations in the Western Hemisphere and the world will have devastating effects on agriculture, as they are key pollinators in many ecosystems. Deformed Wing Virus is one of the main contributors to the loss of honeybee colonies. This virus persists in the bee colony until the colony eventually collapses. A concomitant infection is often present with Varroa, a mite that supports the replication of the DWV to high titers, which suppresses the bees immune system. This study used Beta Glucan in several dosage sizes and in different populations of honeybees. The cohort groups were given the same treatments- no injection, injection of a high-copy number DWV suspension into the haemocel (experimental DWV infection) or injection of PBS into the haemocoel (physical injury). A group of control bees were fed a diet enriched with Beta Glucan and then they received the same treatments. The Beta Glucan group had significantly less bees infected and their viral loads were lessened. Their survival rates were significantly better. This suggests that Beta Glucan may contribute to an increase in honeybee resistance to infections from viruses.
Journal of Tumor December 2016 — Effect of β-glucan Supplementation on Levels of IgM, IgA, IgG and Its Subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 in Cancer Patients.
This is a continued evaluation of the role of Beta Glucan as a supplement to traditional cancer treatments. This study focused on humoral immunity and measured changes in IgM, IgG, and IgA levels- immunoglobulins. The study found that there was a significant decrease in IgG1 levels in the placebo group, which could affect their anti-infectious immunity especially for respiratory diseases, as abnormal IgG1 levels are often found in patients with respiratory problems and autoimmune diseases. Short term treatment with Beta Glucan stabilized the levels of IgG1, especially in women. This could result in maintaining immunities to infectious diseases that could occur during cancer treatments due to suppressed immune response.
Journal of Medicinal Food December 2016 — “Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model”
The use of herbs in medicine is as old as history can record. Most of the data is anecdotal, and their biological and pharmacological activities have not been well researched. In this study, the authors undertook to evaluate the effect on immune response of the essential oil derived from the herb, Thyme. The authors compared the essential oil of Thyme from seven different companies and compositions. They looked at effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibitions and liver protection. The results showed limited biological activity in immune response across all the samples. Their conclusion was that though there are benefits to herbal remedies, if one is looking for improved immune response, Beta Glucan would be a better option.
Annals of Translational Medicine 2016 —”Effects of curcumin on Helicobacter pylori infection”. Annals of Translational Medicine, Vol 4, No 24 December 2016, Vetvicka, V., Vetvickova, J., Fernandez-Botran, R.
This article examines the effect of different curcumin (turmeric) samples on the H. pylori bacterium, which is a Gram-negative bacteria that is linked to stomach and colorectal cancers, as well as peptic ulcers and gastritis. 50% of the world’s population is affected by this bacteria. Many studies have reported the positive effects of curcumin as an anti-inflammatory and anti tumor herbal agent. Past mouse studies have shown a significant inhibition in gastric inflammation, and so this study looked at 5 different samples of curcumin, and found there was a reduction in inflammation and bacteria and a formation of specific antibodies. This suggests that curcumin has strong immunostimulating properties. Of the 5 samples, Sample #1, Sabinsa, was the most active sample, and had the most impressive results.
International Clinical Pathology Journal 2017 —Vetvicka, Vaclav, and Jana Vetvickova. “Β-Glucan – Is The Current Research Relevant?”. International Clinical Pathology Journal4.2 (2017): 89.
This article focuses on the need for more research with Beta Glucan both on animals and humans. The authors discuss the known benefits of B Glucan, such as phagocytosis and macrophages and cytokines, and suggest that there could be many more valuable uses. To this end, they support increased research into “a wider spectrum” of immune reactions. Science is supporting improved nutrition to help fight cancer, and B Glucan could be valuable in this arena.
Invest New Drugs 2017 —Thomas, M., Sadjadian, P., Kollmeier, J., Lowe, J., Mattson, P., Trout, J., . . . Schneller, F., III. (2017, March 1). A randomized, open-label, multicenter, phase II study evaluating the efficacy and safety of BTH1677 (1,3–1,6 beta glucan; Imprime PGG) in combination with cetuximab and chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Retrieved March 24, 2017, from Springedink.com.
This article is about a Phase II study that was conducted with Beta 1,3-1,6 Glucan being used in conjunction with anti-tumor antibody therapies. Lung Cancer is the third most frequent type of Cancer, after Breast and Prostate Cancers. NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer, makes up 85% of lung cancers. Traditionally it has been treated with chemotherapies. With increased research, Monoclonal Antibodies are now being used with a great deal of success. The combination therapy with BTH1677 (Beta Glucan; Imprine PGG) and cetuximab, was well tolerated by patients. Cetuximab was later not approved for advanced stages of NSCLC, but the combination has been successful with other Monoclonal antibodies.
American Journal of Immunology 2017 —Richter, J., Stiborová, I., Král, V., Svozil, V., Vetvicka, V., & Rajnohová, D. (3/29/2017). Glucan Supplementation Regulates Secretory Immunity and Stress. American Journal of Immunology, 13(1), 81-85. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
This article looks at the effects of beta glucan and dietary nucleotides on secretory immunity and salivary cortisol, which is related to stress and immune reparation. The study was conducted in
a hospital in the Czech Republic, using 129 children- 66 in the supplemented group and 63 in the control group. The results were mixed and raise the need for more studies on stress and the immune system. There were some significant effects of the beta glucan on secretory IgA in the children who had increased physical challenges.
Anticancer Research 2017 —Vetvicka, V. & Vetvickova. Fucoidans Stimulate Immune Reaction and Suppress Cancer growth. 37:6041-6046 (2017)
This article examined the efficacy of fucoidans, complex polysaccharides found predominantly in marine algae, echinoderms and seagrasses, as natural immunomodulators. The study used a variety of fucoidans, both purified samples and commercially available products containing fucoidans. Measures were taken on phagocytosis, mitogenic response, natural killer cell activity, antibody formation and inhibition of breast cancer formation. Results showed that fucoidans have significant biological activities, though the pure fucoidans seemed to have the most activity. The addition of other substances to fucoidans needs to be further studied to determine whether there is any positive effects.
Internal Journal Of Molecular Medicine 2018 —Sima, P., Vannucci, L., & Vetvicka, V. β-glucans and cholesterol (Review). International Journal of Molecular Medicine 41: 1799-1808 (2018).
This article looks at high cholesterol levels, hypercholesterolemia, as it is one of the primary risk factors in cardiovascular disease. Since obesity and sedentary lifestyles are more prevalent, creative ways to lower LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) need to be explored. Dietary supplements may be a key to helping regulate cholesterol. Beta Glucans act as dietary fibers in the digestive tract. This, as well as their well-studied enhancement of the immune system, can provide support to both the immune and cardiovascular systems. Both the soluble and insoluble forms of B-Glucans have a role. The article looks at studies on Glucans, cholesterol and the effects of a fiber rich diet.